We studied the effect of a gluten-free diet in patients with idiopathic sensorimotor axonal neuropathy and circulating antigliadin antibodies. Consecutive patients underwent baseline neurophysiological assessment and were offered a gluten-free diet. Those who went on the diet formed the intention-to-treat group and those who did not were the control group. Repeat neurophysiological assessment and subjective evaluation of neuropathy symptoms were performed at 1 year. A total of 35 patients participated in the study, with 25 patients going on the diet and 10 not doing so. There was a significant difference in the change of sural sensory action potentials (pre-defined primary endpoint), with evidence of improvement in the intention-to-treat group and deterioration in the control group. Subjective change in neuropathy symptoms also showed significant differences, with patients in the intention-to-treat group reporting improvement and those in the control group reporting deterioration. Gluten-free diet may thus be a useful therapeutic intervention for patients with gluten neuropathy.