An immunoperoxidase technique has been used to detect the in vivo binding of a 2-nitroimidazole hypoxia marker in histochemical sections of a variety of excised canine tumours. The binding occurred 10-12 cell diameters away from tumour blood vessels, consistent with the expected location of hypoxic cells in tissues in which oxygen concentration gradients are established by diffusion. Hypoxic fractions ranging from 4 to 13% have been estimated on the basis of morphometric analysis of multiple tumour sections. The binding of the marker was restricted to the cytoplasm of the cells. The marker appeared in regions adjacent to necrosis but also in regions free of necrosis. As in earlier autoradiography studies, binding was occasionally observed in cells adjacent to tumour blood vessels. Generally, binding to normal tissues was not observed. However, binding to smooth muscle cells surrounding arterioles in some sections of normal tissue and tumour tissue was observed.