Hemostasis alterations in metabolic syndrome (review)

Int J Mol Med. 2006 Nov;18(5):969-74.


Metabolic syndrome (MS) is characterized by the presence of at least three of the following alterations: enlargement of the waist diameter, higher levels of arterial pressure, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and glycemia, and reduction of high density lipoprotein cholesterol. The prevalence of MS reaches 23% in young adults, a percentage that increases with age. People with MS have a greater risk of suffering from cardiovascular disease (CVD). The physiopathologic alterations now found to exist in MS are diverse; among them is endothelial dysfunction, which triggers atherogenic lesions and hypercoagulability characterized by alterations of the coagulation factors and the regulatory proteins of fibrinolysis such as the plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1). The increase in oxidative stress and/or the reactive oxygen species in patients with MS is partially related to the oxidation state of the lipoproteins, especially of the low density lipoproteins. This fact favors atherogenesis. Moreover, the oxidative stress produces alterations in the production of adipokines, cytokines secreted by the adipose tissues. The abnormality in the transport of lipoprotein diminishes the catabolism of the very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and increases the catabolism of the high density lipoprotein (HDL), which creates insulin resistance. This process is associated with a lower concentration of adiponectin that in turn regulates the catabolism of VLDL and HDL; consequently increasing the flow of fatty acids from the adipose tissue to the liver and muscles. The proinflammatory cytokines, among them tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), are of great importance in MS regulating different processes and molecules such as PAI-1. PAI-1 is controlled by the group of transcription factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), especially by PPAR gamma and alpha ligands. In summary, MS includes multiple alterations related to insulin resistance at several levels: hepatic, muscular, adipose and vascular tissue (endothelium). The exact mechanism that underlies the relationship between MS and CVD are not sufficiently known yet; pathogenic explanations are lacking for the mechanisms relating metabolic factors to insulin resistance and the association with the development of atherosclerosis and thrombosis. MS alterations and the main aspects related to homeostasis alterations are examined in this report.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cardiovascular Diseases / etiology*
  • Endothelium, Vascular / pathology
  • Endothelium, Vascular / physiopathology
  • Fibrinolysis*
  • Hemostasis*
  • Humans
  • Metabolic Syndrome / complications*
  • Metabolic Syndrome / physiopathology*
  • Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 / metabolism


  • Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1
  • SERPINE1 protein, human