In 1997, Corkin et al. described the anatomical boundaries of the amnesic patient H.M.'s surgical resection, based on a comprehensive analysis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans collected in 1992 and 1993 (Corkin et al. (1997) J Neurosci 17:3964-3979). We subsequently scanned H.M. on several occasions, employing more advanced data acquisition and analysis methods, and now describe additional details about his brain anatomy and pathology. This account combines results from high-resolution T1-weighted scans, which provide measures of cortical and subcortical morphometry, diffusion tensor images, which provide quantitative information about white matter microstructure and the anatomy of major fasciculi, and T2-weighted images, which highlight damage to deep white matter. We applied new MRI analysis techniques to these scans to assess the integrity of areas throughout H.M.'s brain. We documented a number of new changes, including cortical thinning, atrophy of deep gray matter structures, and a large volume of abnormal white matter and deep gray matter signal. Most of these alterations were not apparent in his prior scans, suggesting that they are of recent origin. Advanced age and hypertension likely contributed to these new findings.