Effect of a multiple-micronutrient-fortified fruit powder beverage on the nutrition status, physical fitness, and cognitive performance of schoolchildren in the Philippines

Food Nutr Bull. 2003 Dec;24(4 Suppl):S129-40. doi: 10.1177/15648265030244S210.


This study aimed to determine the effect of a multiple-micronutrient-fortified beverage on the micronutrient status, physical fitness, and cognitive performance of schoolchildren. The study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of schoolchildren assigned to receive either the fortified or nonfortified beverage with or without anthelmintic therapy. Data on hemoglobin level, urinary iodine excretion (UIE) level, physical fitness, and cognitive performance were collected at baseline and at 16 weeks post-intervention. The fortified beverage significantly improved iron status among the subjects that had hemoglobin levels < 11 g/dl at baseline. The proportion of children who remained moderately to severely anemic was significantly lower among those given the fortified beverage. In the groups that received the fortified product, the median UIE level increased, whereas among those who received the placebo beverage, the median UIE level was reduced significantly. Iron- and/or iodine-deficient subjects who received the fortified beverage showed significant improvements in fitness (post-exercise reduction of heart rate) and cognitive performance (nonverbal mental ability score). The study showed that consumption of a multiple-micronutrient-fortified beverage for 16 weeks had significant effects on iron status, iodine status, physical fitness, and cognitive performance among iron- and/or iodine-deficient Filipino schoolchildren. Anthelmintic therapy improved iron status of anemic children and iodine status of the iron-adequate children at baseline but it had no effect on physical fitness and cognitive performance. The results from the clinical study showed that a multiple-micronutrient-fortified beverage could play an important role in preventing and controlling micronutrient deficiencies.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Anemia, Iron-Deficiency / drug therapy
  • Anthelmintics / therapeutic use
  • Anthropometry
  • Beverages
  • Child
  • Cognition / drug effects*
  • Cognition / physiology
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Female
  • Food, Fortified*
  • Humans
  • Iodine / administration & dosage
  • Iodine / deficiency
  • Male
  • Micronutrients / administration & dosage*
  • Micronutrients / deficiency
  • Nutritional Status / drug effects*
  • Nutritional Status / physiology
  • Philippines
  • Physical Fitness* / physiology
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Anthelmintics
  • Micronutrients
  • Iodine