There are limited nationwide population-based data about birth weight percentiles by gestational age in Taiwan. The purpose of this study was to develop updated intrauterine growth charts that are population based and contain the information of birth weight percentiles by gestational age for singleton newborns in Taiwan. We abstracted and analyzed the birth registration database from the Ministry of the Interior in Taiwan during the period of 1998-2002 that consisted of over one million singleton births. Percentiles of birth weight for each increment of gestational week from 21 to 44 weeks were estimated using smoothed means and standard deviations. The analyses revealed that birth weight rose with advancing gestational age, with greater slopes during the third trimester and then leveled off beyond 40 weeks of gestational age. The male to female ratio ranged from 1.088 to 1.096. The mean birth weights during the period of 1998-2002 were higher than those previously reported for the period of 1945-1967; while the birth weight distribution and percentile during the period of 1998-2002 were similar to those reported for the period of 1979-1989. The 10th, 50th, and 90th percentiles of birth weigh at 40th gestational age among the male newborns were 2914, 3374, and 3890 g respectively; and for the female newborns 2816, 3250, and 3747 g. At the gestational age of 37 weeks, the 10th, 50th, and 90th percentiles of birth weigh among the male newborns were 2499, 2941, and 3433 g respectively; and for the female newborns 2391, 2832, and 3334 g. From 1998 to 2002, there was a gradual increase in the prevalence of low birth weight and preterm birth together with the percentage of infants born to foreign-born mothers. This study provides the first nationwide singleton intrauterine growth charts in Taiwan that are population-based and gender-specific. The normative data are particularly useful for the investigation of predictors and outcomes of altered fetal growth.