Maternal upward socioeconomic mobility and black-white disparities in infant birthweight

Am J Public Health. 2006 Nov;96(11):2032-9. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2005.076547. Epub 2006 Oct 3.


Objectives: We estimate the extent to which upward socioeconomic mobility limits the probability that Black and White women who spent their childhoods in or near poverty will give birth to a low-birthweight baby.

Methods: Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and the 1970 US Census were used to complete a series of logistic regression models. We restricted multivariate analyses to female survey respondents who, at 14 years of age, were living in households in which the income-to-needs ratio did not exceed 200% of poverty.

Results: For White women, the probability of giving birth to a low-birthweight baby decreases by 48% for every 1 unit increase in the natural logarithm of adult family income, once the effects of all other covariates are taken into account. For Black women, the relation between adult family income and the probability of low birthweight is also negative; however, this association fails to reach statistical significance.

Conclusions: Upward socioeconomic mobility contributes to improved birth outcomes among infants born to White women who were poor as children, but the same does not hold true for their Black counterparts.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • African Americans / statistics & numerical data*
  • European Continental Ancestry Group / statistics & numerical data*
  • Female
  • Health Surveys
  • Humans
  • Infant, Low Birth Weight*
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Logistic Models
  • Maternal Welfare / economics
  • Maternal Welfare / ethnology*
  • Maternal Welfare / trends*
  • Middle Aged
  • Poverty
  • Prejudice*
  • Probability
  • Social Mobility / economics*
  • Social Mobility / trends
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Vulnerable Populations