Scientists are turning to genetic variation research in hopes of addressing persistent racial/ethnic disparities in health. Despite ongoing controversy, the advancement of genetic variation research is likely to produce new knowledge and technologies that will substantially change the ways in which we understand and value health. They also may affect the ways in which individuals and groups organize socially, politically, and economically. Addressing concerns that may exist in different communities is vital to the scientific and ethical advancement of genetic variation research. We review empirical studies of public willingness to participate in and opinions about genetic research with particular attention to differences in consent and opinion by racial/ethnic group membership.