Aims/hypothesis: Higher habitual coffee drinking has been associated with a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes. The relation between coffee consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been examined in many studies, but the issue remains controversial. This study was designed to assess the association between coffee consumption and CVD mortality among patients with type 2 diabetes.
Methods: We prospectively followed 3,837 randomly ascertained Finnish patients with type 2 diabetes aged 25 to 74 years. Coffee consumption and other study parameters were determined at baseline. The International Classification of Diseases was used to identify CHD, CVD and stroke cases using computerised record linkage to the national Death Registry. The associations between coffee consumption at baseline and risk of total, CVD, CHD, and stroke mortality were analysed by using Cox proportional hazards models.
Results: During the average follow-up of 20.8 years, 1,471 deaths were recorded, of which 909 were coded as CVD, 598 as CHD and 210 as stroke. The respective multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios in participants who drank 0-2, 3-4, 5-6, and > or =7 cups of coffee daily were 1.00, 0.77, 0.68 and 0.70 for total mortality (P<0.001 for trend), 1.00, 0.79, 0.70 and 0.71 for CVD mortality (P=0.006 for trend), 1.00, 0.78, 0.70 and 0.63 for CHD mortality (p=0.01 for trend), and 1.00, 0.77, 0.64 and 0.90 for stroke mortality (p=0.12 for trend).
Conclusions/interpretation: In this large prospective study we found that in type 2 diabetic patients coffee drinking is associated with reduced total, CVD and CHD mortality.