A complex genetic examination of children which belong to two cohorts and their parents were carried out. The first cohort included children and constantly living on territories contaminated with radionuclides (Novozybkov district, Bryansk region). They were subdivided in groups according to the ontogenetic age periods of development of their parents at the time of the Chernobyl accident. In the children born in 1986-1995 the level of aberrant genomes is significantly higher as compared to the control (p < 0.001). In children born in 1998-2002 the differences are insignificant (p > 0.05). The frequency of aberrant genomes had a tendency to decrease with the period of time between the birth date of a child and the moment of the accident. Analysis of the results of cytogenetic investigation for the same living on territories with different densities of radioactive contamination (zone I-- 627-688 kBq/m2, 137Cs and zone II-- 135-402 kBq/m2, 137Cs) revealed insignificant differences in the spectrum and average frequencies of chromosome aberrations. The second cohort included children born in 1987-1991 and 1993-2002 from irradiated fathers (Chernobyl clean-up workers) and unirradiated mothers living on territories without radionuclide contamination. These children also displayed increased frequencies of aberrant genomes as compared to the control (p < 0.001). The analysis of the dynamics years of birth of cytogenetic disturbances in the same cohorts of children showed the average frequencies of aberrant genomes remain higher than the control level. In most of the children of both cohorts the repair synthesis of genome DNA by gamma- and UV-radiation is reduced as compared to one in the children from the control group.