Emergence of serine carbapenemases (KPC and SME) among clinical strains of Enterobacteriaceae isolated in the United States Medical Centers: report from the MYSTIC Program (1999-2005)

Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2006 Dec;56(4):367-72. doi: 10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2006.07.004. Epub 2006 Oct 3.


Among 8885 Enterobacteriaceae tested in the 1999 to 2005 period as part of the USA Meropenem Yearly Susceptibility Test Information Collection (MYSTIC) Program, 51 strains with increased imipenem and meropenem MIC values (> or =2 microg/mL) were detected. bla(KPC) was identified from 28 Klebsiella pneumoniae from 3 medical centers in the New York City area (8 ribotypes), 2 Klebsiella oxytoca from Arkansas (same ribotype), 7 Citrobacter freundii (6 from New York [5 ribotypes] and 1 from Delaware), 4 Enterobacter spp. from New York (2 species, different ribotypes), 3 Escherichia coli (2 from New York and 1 from Ohio, same ribotype), and 1 Serratia marcescens (New York). Sequencing confirmed KPC-2 or -3 in all of the strains. S. marcescens strains harboring SME-1 (2 isolates, same ribotype) and SME-2 (1 isolate) were identified from medical centers in Illinois and Washington state, respectively. Our results indicate that bla(KPC-2/3) has emerged widely (New York City area, Arkansas, Delaware, and Ohio) among Enterobacteriaceae isolated in the MYSTIC Program participant sites (2000-2005) and continues to be isolated from multiple species, as a result of clonal expansion and horizontal gene transfer. The escalating occurrence (0.35%) of serine carbapenemases could compromise the role of carbapenems and other beta-lactams in USA clinical practice although observed in only a few locations to date.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study

MeSH terms

  • Academic Medical Centers
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology*
  • Bacterial Proteins / biosynthesis*
  • Bacterial Proteins / chemistry
  • Enterobacteriaceae / drug effects*
  • Enterobacteriaceae / enzymology*
  • Enterobacteriaceae / isolation & purification
  • Enterobacteriaceae Infections / microbiology*
  • Humans
  • Imipenem / pharmacology*
  • Meropenem
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • Population Surveillance
  • Serine
  • Species Specificity
  • Thienamycins / pharmacology*
  • United States
  • beta-Lactamases / biosynthesis*
  • beta-Lactamases / chemistry


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Thienamycins
  • Serine
  • Imipenem
  • beta-Lactamases
  • carbapenemase
  • Meropenem