The cph1/cph1 efg1/efg1 Candida albicans mutant cells were non-lethal in a mouse model of systemic infection. We investigated in vivo proliferation and invasion of C. albicans cells in infected mice to elucidate the interaction between the host and the pathogen. Homogenates of kidneys from the mice infected with the wild-type and the mutant C. albicans cells yielded a mean of 2.1 x 10 7 CFU/g and 2.2 x 10 6 CFU/g, respectively. The kidneys from the mice infected with the wild-type cells showed extensive renal cortical necrosis associated with neutrophilic infiltration. There were also wild-type hyphal cells present in abundance. Hence, tubular necrosis leading to renal failure in the mice may be the cause of death. Although the cph1/cph1 efg1/efg1 mutant cells were not lethal, they were capable of establishing restricted zones of infection and colonization near the renal pelvis instead of simply being cleared by the immune system in mice.