Heat shock proteins are highly conserved proteins that, when produced intracellularly, protect stress exposed cells. In contrast, extracellular heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) has been shown to have both protective and deleterious effects. In this study, we assessed heat shock protein 70 for its potential role in human longevity. Because of the importance of HSP to disease processes, cellular protection, and inflammation, we hypothesized that: (1) Hsp70 levels in centenarians and centenarian offspring are different from controls and (2) alleles in genes associated with Hsp70 explain these differences. In this cross-sectional study, we assessed serum Hsp70 levels from participants enrolled in either the New England Centenarian Study (NECS) or the Longevity Genes Project (LGP): 87 centenarians (from LGP), 93 centenarian offspring (from NECS), and 126 controls (43 from NECS, 83 from LGP). We also examined genotypic and allelic frequencies of polymorphisms in HSP70-A1A and HSP70-A1B in 347 centenarians (266 from the NECS, 81 from the LGP), 260 NECS centenarian offspring, and 238 controls (NECS: 53 spousal controls and 106 septuagenarian offspring controls; LGP: 79 spousal controls). The adjusted mean serum Hsp70 levels (ng/mL) for the NECS centenarian offspring, LGP centenarians, LGP spousal controls, and NECS controls were 1.05, 1.13, 3.07, 6.93, respectively, suggesting that a low serum Hsp70 level is associated with longevity; however, no genetic associations were found with two SNPs within two hsp70 genes.