Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecological malignancy, with 41,000 new cases projected in the United States for 2006. Two different clinicopathologic subtypes are recognized: the estrogen-related (type I, endometrioid) and the non-estrogen-related types (type II, nonendometrioid such as papillary serous and clear cell). The morphologic differences in these cancers are mirrored in their molecular genetic profile with type I showing defects in DNA-mismatch repair and mutations in PTEN, K-ras, and beta-catenin, and type II showing aneuploidy and p53 mutations. This article reviews the genetic aspects of endometrial carcinogenesis and progression. We will define the precursor lesion of type I endometrioid cancer and the role of genetics and estrogen in its progression.