Systemic immune response to Trichomonas vaginalis infection during pregnancy

Sex Transm Dis. 2007 Jun;34(6):392-6. doi: 10.1097/01.olq.0000243618.71908.95.


Objective: The objective of this study was to characterize the systemic immune response in women with trichomoniasis in pregnancy as compared with uninfected women.

Study design: A nested case control study was performed on 195 serum samples. Serum concentrations of cytokines, chemokines, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were compared between infected and uninfected women. Cytokines and chemokines were measured using a multiplex bead assay. The CRP concentrations were determined using a standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method.

Results: The median serum concentration of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) was significantly higher in the trichomonas-infected group compared with the uninfected group (8.9 pg/mL vs. 5.7 pg/mL; P <0.001). The mean log-transformed CRP values were higher in the infected group compared with the uninfected group (1.66 vs. 1.27; P = 0.03).

Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that trichomoniasis during pregnancy can lead to a systemic immune response in some women as exhibited by elevation in the serum concentrations of both GM-CSF and CRP.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Animals
  • C-Reactive Protein / metabolism
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Chemokines / blood
  • Cytokines / blood
  • Female
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / blood
  • Humans
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications, Infectious / blood
  • Pregnancy Complications, Infectious / immunology*
  • Trichomonas Vaginitis / blood
  • Trichomonas Vaginitis / immunology*
  • Trichomonas vaginalis / immunology*


  • Chemokines
  • Cytokines
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
  • C-Reactive Protein