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Review
. Nov-Dec 2006;40(5-6):495-504.
doi: 10.1016/j.ceca.2006.08.011. Epub 2006 Oct 9.

Functional Organization of TRPC-Ca2+ Channels and Regulation of Calcium Microdomains

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Review

Functional Organization of TRPC-Ca2+ Channels and Regulation of Calcium Microdomains

Indu S Ambudkar et al. Cell Calcium. .

Abstract

TRP family of proteins are components of unique cation channels that are activated in response to diverse stimuli ranging from growth factor and neurotransmitter stimulation of plasma membrane receptors to a variety of chemical and sensory signals. This review will focus on members of the TRPC sub-family (TRPC1-TRPC7) which currently appear to be the strongest candidates for the enigmatic Ca(2+) influx channels that are activated in response to stimulation of plasma membrane receptors which result in phosphatidyl inositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate (PIP(2)) hydrolysis, generation of IP(3) and DAG, and IP(3)-induced Ca(2+) release from the intracellular Ca(2+) store via inositol trisphosphate receptor (IP(3)R). Homomeric or selective heteromeric interactions between TRPC monomers generate distinct channels that contribute to store-operated as well as store-independent Ca(2+) entry mechanisms. The former is regulated by the emptying/refilling of internal Ca(2+) store(s) while the latter depends on PIP(2) hydrolysis (due to changes in PIP(2) per se or an increase in diacylglycerol, DAG). Although the exact physiological function of TRPC channels and how they are regulated has not yet been conclusively established, it is clear that a variety of cellular functions are controlled by Ca(2+) entry via these channels. Thus, it is critical to understand how cells coordinate the regulation of diverse TRPC channels to elicit specific physiological functions. It is now well established that segregation of TRPC channels mediated by interactions with signaling and scaffolding proteins, determines their localization and regulation in functionally distinct cellular domains. Furthermore, both protein and lipid components of intracellular and plasma membranes contribute to the organization of these microdomains. Such organization serves as a platform for the generation of spatially and temporally dictated [Ca(2+)](i) signals which are critical for precise control of downstream cellular functions.

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