Cross-protective immunity in mice induced by live-attenuated or inactivated vaccines against highly pathogenic influenza A (H5N1) viruses

Vaccine. 2006 Nov 10;24(44-46):6588-93. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2006.05.039. Epub 2006 Jun 5.


Because of the time required to identify and produce an antigenically well-matched pandemic vaccine, vaccines that offer broader cross-reactive immunity and protection are desirable. We have compared a live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) and inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) based on a related H5 hemagglutinin (HA) from a nonpathogenic avian influenza virus, A/Duck/Pottsdam/1042-6/86 (H5N2), for the ability to induce cross-reactive immunity and/or cross-protective efficacy against a contemporary highly pathogenic H5N1 viruses. Both LAIV and IIV provided cross-protection from systemic infection, severe disease, and death following lethal challenges with antigenically distinct A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (VN/1203) virus. Substantial levels of serum anti-VN/1203 HA IgG were detected in mice that received either IIV or LAIV, while nasal wash anti-VN/1203 HA IgA was detected in mice that received LAIV. Formulation of IIV with alum adjuvant augmented neutralizing antibody responses and protective efficacy. These results demonstrated that vaccination of mice with H5 IIV or LAIV induced a high degree of cross-protection from illness and death following lethal challenges with a heterologous H5N1 virus.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Viral / analysis
  • Antibodies, Viral / blood
  • Cross Reactions
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype / drug effects*
  • Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype / immunology
  • Influenza Vaccines / administration & dosage*
  • Influenza Vaccines / immunology
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Orthomyxoviridae Infections / immunology
  • Orthomyxoviridae Infections / prevention & control*
  • Vaccines, Inactivated / administration & dosage*
  • Vaccines, Inactivated / immunology


  • Antibodies, Viral
  • Influenza Vaccines
  • Vaccines, Inactivated