Sjögren's syndrome is well known for the presence of antibodies directed at specific nuclear antigens. However, the presence of antibodies reacting with a variety of other self antigens, including antimitochondrial antibodies, has often been reported although their significance is unknown. Moreover, patients with Sjögren's syndrome have been occasionally reported to be concordant with primary biliary cirrhosis. To address this issue we studied in a group of 96 patients with Sjögren's syndrome the presence of autoantibodies to the dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferases of both pyruvate dehydrogenase and branch chain ketoacid dehydrogenase and to alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase; these latter enzymes are the mitochondrial target antigens of primary biliary cirrhosis. We report that 7 of the 96 patients reacted with the mitochondrial antigens that are prominent in primary biliary cirrhosis. Moreover, in those patients showing reactivity with mitochondrial antigens, the autoantibodies were directed at the same immunodominant epitopes that have been previously characterized in primary biliary cirrhosis. One of the 7 positive patients was known to have primary biliary cirrhosis. We hypothesize that the remaining 6 patients are at clinical risk for the development of primary biliary cirrhosis and/or that abnormalities would be found on liver biopsy.