Background: Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1 or CXCL12) and CXCR4 are key elements in the metastasis of prostate cancer cells to bone--but the mechanisms as to how it localizes to the marrow remains unclear.
Methods: Prostate cancer cell lines were stimulated with SDF-1 and evaluated for alterations in the expression of adhesion molecules using microarrays, FACs, and Western blotting to identify alpha(v)beta(3) receptors. Cell-cell adhesion and invasion assays were used to verify that activation of the receptor is responsive to SDF-1.
Results: We demonstrate that SDF-1 transiently regulates the number and affinity of alpha(v)beta(3) receptors by prostate cancer cells to enhance their metastatic behavior by increasing adhesiveness and invasiveness. SDF-1 transiently increased the expression of beta(3) receptor subunit and increased its phosphorylation in metastatic but not nonmetastatic cells.
Conclusions: The transition from a locally invasive phenotype to a metastatic phenotype may be primed by the elevated expression of alpha(v)beta(3) receptors. Activation and increased expression of alpha(v)beta(3) within SDF-1-rich organs may participate in metastatic localization.
(c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.