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Review
, 65 Suppl 3 (Suppl 3), iii61-4

IL-32, a Novel Cytokine With a Possible Role in Disease

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Review

IL-32, a Novel Cytokine With a Possible Role in Disease

C A Dinarello et al. Ann Rheum Dis.

Abstract

IL-32 is the name given to the NK4 transcript first reported in IL-2 activated T lymphocytes and natural killer cells 13 years ago without known function. The novel cytokine has six isoforms. In an study to isolate a soluble form of the IL-32 receptor from human urine, IL-32alpha bound proteinase-3 with high affinity and was not affected by enzyme inhibition. IL-32alpha/IL-32gamma were expressed as recombinant molecules. The cytokine exhibits properties characteristic of proinflammatory cytokines and also induces the degradation of inhibitory kappaB and phosphorylation of mitogen activated protein p38. Monoclonal antibodies to IL-32 identify its presence in a variety of human tissues from diseases states. Epithelial cells from healthy subjects express low levels of the cytokine, but in disease conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Crohn's disease and psoriasis, the expression increases markedly. IL-32 is a major transcript in gene array studies in epithelial cells stimulated with IFNgamma in vitro. In rheumatoid arthritis, synovial tissues reveals increased content of IL-32, which correlates with severity of disease. A highly significant correlation has been observed between the number of synovial and macrophagic cells positive for IL-32 and the level of erythrocytes sedimentation, IL-1beta, tumour necrosis factor alpha, and IL-18. Thus, IL-32 exhibits many properties of proinflammatory cytokines and associations with disease severity.

Conflict of interest statement

Competing interests: none declared

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