In multicellular organisms, organogenesis requires tight control and coordination of cell proliferation, cell expansion, and cell differentiation. We have identified Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) nucleosome assembly protein 1 (AtNAP1;1) as a component of a regulatory mechanism that connects cell proliferation to cell growth and expansion during Arabidopsis leaf development. Molecular, biochemical, and kinetic studies of AtNAP1;1 gain- or loss-of-function mutants indicate that AtNAP1;1 promotes cell proliferation or cell expansion in a developmental context and as a function of the farnesylation status of the protein. AtNAP1;1 was farnesylated and localized to the nucleus during the cell proliferation phase of leaf development when it promotes cell division. Later in leaf development, nonfarnesylated AtNAP1;1 accumulates in the cytoplasm when it promotes cell expansion. Ectopic expression of nonfarnesylated AtNAP1;1, which localized to the cytoplasm, disrupts this developmental program by promoting unscheduled cell expansion during the proliferation phase.