Control of mRNA translation plays a fundamental role in many aspects of cell metabolism. It constitutes a critical step in the control of gene expression, and consequently cell growth, proliferation and differentiation. Translation is regulated in response to nutrient availability, hormones, mitogenic and growth factor stimulation and is coupled with cell cycle progression and cell growth. Signaling by the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway profoundly affects mRNA translation through phosphorylation of downstream targets such as 4E-BP and S6K. Inhibitors of this pathway and thus cap-dependent translation are emerging as promising therapeutic options for the treatment of cancer.