Inducible cell adhesion molecule 110 (INCAM-110), is a 110-kd adhesion receptor for lymphocytes and monocytes identified on cytokine-activated endothelium. Using immunoperoxidase techniques, little or no INCAM-110 was detected on endothelium in normal human tissues. In contrast, INCAM-110 was expressed in postcapillary venules in a variety of active inflammatory processes. In acute appendicitis, INCAM-110 was found coincident with strong expression of endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule 1 (ELAM-1), a cytokine-inducible molecule that functions in neutrophil adhesion. However, in certain chronic inflammatory processes (eg, sarcoidosis), INCAM-110 was observed without simultaneous ELAM-1 expression. Anti-INCAM-110 antibody E1/6 also marked several extravascular cell types, including lymphoid dendritic cells, some tissue macrophages, synovial lining cells, and reactive mesothelial cells. These data suggest a role for endothelial INCAM-110 in the pathophysiology of both acute and chronic inflammatory reactions. Furthermore INCAM-110 may function as an adhesion molecule for mononuclear leukocytes in a variety of extravascular sites.