Comparison of forced-air warming and electric heating pad for maintenance of body temperature during total knee replacement

Anaesthesia. 2006 Nov;61(11):1100-4. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2044.2006.04816.x.


We conducted a randomised controlled trial to compare the efficacy of forced-air warming (Bair Hugger(trade mark), Augustine Medical model 500/OR, Prairie, MN) with that of an electric heating pad (Operatherm 202, KanMed, Sweden) for maintenance of intra-operative body temperature in 60 patients undergoing total knee replacement under combined spinal-epidural anaesthesia. Intra-operative tympanic and rectal temperatures and verbal analogue score for thermal comfort were recorded. There were no differences in any measurements between the two groups, with mean (SD) final rectal temperatures of 36.8 (0.4) degrees C with forced-air warming and 36.9 (0.4) degrees C with the electric pad. The heating pad is as effective as forced-air warming for maintenance of intra-operative body temperature.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Anesthesia, Epidural
  • Anesthesia, Spinal
  • Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee / instrumentation
  • Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee / methods*
  • Bedding and Linens
  • Body Temperature / physiology*
  • Electricity
  • Female
  • Hot Temperature
  • Humans
  • Hypothermia / prevention & control
  • Intraoperative Period
  • Male
  • Pain Measurement / methods
  • Rectum
  • Rewarming / methods*