Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in normal neuronal development. Several lines of evidence implicate the involvement of BDNF in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study investigated the role of two common BDNF variants (Val66Met, C270T) in two samples of ADHD probands from the United Kingdom (n = 180) and Taiwan (n = 212). We found evidence of increased transmission of the C allele of the C270T in Taiwanese samples (TDT: chi(2) = 6.78, P = 0.009) and the two samples pooled together (TDT: chi(2) = 7.24, P = 0.007). No association was found between the Val66Met polymorphism and ADHD in either of the two populations. Analysis of haplotypes demonstrated a significant decreased transmission of haplotypes containing the Val66 allele and the 270T allele in the Taiwanese samples (TDT: chi(2) = 4.57, P = 0.032) and the pooled sample set (TDT: chi(2) = 5.82, P = 0.016). This study provides evidence for the possible involvement of BDNF in susceptibility to ADHD.