Congenitally missing mandibular second premolars: clinical options

Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2006 Oct;130(4):437-44. doi: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2006.05.025.


Introduction: Congenital absence of mandibular second premolars affects many orthodontic patients. The orthodontist must make the proper decision at the appropriate time regarding management of the edentulous space. These spaces can be closed or left open.

Implications: If the space will be left open for an eventual restoration, the keys during orthodontic treatment are to create the correct amount of space and to leave the alveolar ridge in an ideal condition for a future restoration. If the space will be closed, the clinician must avoid any detrimental alterations to the occlusion and the facial profile.

Significance: Some early decisions that the orthodontist makes for a patient whose mandibular second premolars are congenitally missing will affect his or her dental health for a lifetime. Therefore, the correct decision must be made at the appropriate time.

Purpose: In this article, we present and discuss various treatment alternatives for managing orthodontic patients with at least 1 congenitally missing mandibular second premolar.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Anodontia / therapy*
  • Bicuspid / abnormalities*
  • Child
  • Dental Implantation, Endosseous
  • Dental Implants, Single-Tooth*
  • Dental Restoration, Permanent
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Malocclusion, Angle Class II / therapy
  • Mandible
  • Orthodontic Space Closure / methods*
  • Patient Care Team
  • Space Maintenance, Orthodontic / methods*
  • Tooth Movement Techniques / methods*
  • Tooth, Deciduous