MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs emerging as important post-transcriptional gene regulators. In this study, we examined the role of miR-1, an miRNA specifically expressed in cardiac and skeletal muscle tissue, on the myogenic, osteoblastic, and adipogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells. Upon induction of myogenic differentiation, miR-1 was robustly expressed. Retrovirus-mediated overexpression of miR-1 markedly enhanced expression of muscle creatine kinase, sarcomeric myosin, and alpha-actinin, while the effects on myogenin and MyoD expression were modest. Formation of myotubes was significantly augmented in miR-1-overexpressing cells, indicating miR-1 expression enhanced not only myogenic differentiation but also maturation into myotubes. In contrast, osteoblastic and adipogenic differentiation was not affected by forced expression of miR-1. Thus, the muscle-specific miRNA, miR-1, plays important roles in controlling myogenic differentiation and maturation in lineage-committed cells, rather than functioning in fate determination.