For decades, scientists have investigated the environmental and human health effects of synthetic chemicals. A growing body of research has illuminated the spectrum of consequences deriving from our reliance these substances and their proliferation in air, water, soil and the food chain. Of particular concern is the fact that residues of many man-made chemicals are now detectible in virtually every person. A key to a chemical's tendency to persist in tissues once it has entered the body is its lipophilicity. Substances that are poorly soluble in water and quite soluble in fat have relatively free access, via lipid-rich cellular membranes, to the cells of all organs including the ability to cross the blood-brain and placental barriers. Substantial data exist demonstrating that in addition to pollutants, drugs and their metabolites dispose to tissues high in fat content, including brain and adipose. While their characteristic lipophilicity permits drugs and medications to reach target tissues, thereby producing therapeutic effects in the present, current perceptions of risk may be ignoring the possibility that adipose accumulations of illicit drugs and pharmaceuticals may lead to future patterns of ill health similar to those associated with exposure to other categories of xenobiotic chemicals. Empirical data are beginning to characterize the myriad regulatory functions of adipose hormones, including roles in cravings, cognitive function, energy level, and inflammation as well as changes in adipose hormone levels associated with drug use. Included in this data are the observation that a rehabilitative treatment intervention introduced by L. Ron Hubbard in 1978 to aid in the broad elimination of chemicals from body stores improves symptoms common to both chemical exposure and drug addiction. The regimen, which includes exercise, sauna bathing, and vitamin and mineral supplementation, is utilized by nearly 70 drug rehabilitation and medical practices in over 20 countries. At present, much more is unknown than is known regarding long-term drug retention and effects. This subject deserves careful evaluation given its potential implications for health and chronic illnesses of poorly defined etiology (such as chronic fatigue syndrome), as well as drug abuse prevention, drug rehabilitation, forensic and legal areas.