Objectives: The purpose of this investigator-driven, prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled phase II study was to compare the effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) on the improvement of myocardial function in patients undergoing delayed percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).
Background: Experimental and early clinical studies suggest that transplantation of stem cells improves cardiac regeneration and neovascularization after acute myocardial infarction. Most investigators have utilized either a direct injection or intracoronary infusion of bone marrow-derived cells, but early cytokine-mediated mobilization of stem cells has been reported to show similar improvement in cardiac function.
Methods: Forty-four patients with late revascularized subacute STEMI were treated either with G-CSF or placebo over 5 days after successful PCI. Primary end points were change of global and regional myocardial function from baseline (1 week after PCI) to 3 months after PCI assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Secondary end points consisted of characterization of mobilized stem cell populations, assessment of safety parameters up to 12 months including 6-month angiography, as well as myocardial perfusion assessed by MRI.
Results: Global myocardial function from baseline (1 week after PCI) to 3 months improved in both groups, but G-CSF was not superior to placebo (Delta(ejection fraction) 6.2 +/- 9.0 vs. 5.3 +/- 9.8%, p = 0.77). A slight but non-significant improvement of regional function occurred in both groups. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor resulted in mobilization of endothelial progenitor cell populations and was well tolerated with a similar rate of target lesion revascularization from in-stent restenosis. In both groups major adverse cardiovascular events occurred in a comparable frequency. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor resulted in significant improvement of myocardial perfusion 1 week and 1 month after PCI.
Conclusions: Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor treatment after PCI in subacute STEMI is feasible and relatively safe. However, patients do not benefit from G-CSF when PCI is performed late. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor results in improved myocardial perfusion of the infarcted area, which may reflect enhanced neovascularization.