As endurance training improves symptoms and quality of life and decreases mortality rate and hospitalization, it is increasingly recognized as a beneficial practice for heart failure (HF) patients. However, the mechanisms involved in the beneficial effects of exercise training are far from being understood and need further evaluation. Independent of hemodynamics effects, exercise training participates in tissue remodeling. While heart failure induces a generalized metabolic myopathy, adaptation to endurance training mainly improves energetic aspects of muscle function. In the present review, after presenting the main characteristics of cardiac and skeletal muscle energy metabolism and the effects of exercise training, we will discuss the evidence for the beneficial effects of endurance training on cardiac and skeletal muscle oxidative metabolism and intracellular energy transfer in HF. These beneficial effects of exercise training seen in heart failure patients are also relevant to other chronic diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, and obesity) and even for highly sedentary or elderly individuals [Booth F.W., Chakravathy M.V., Spangenburg E.E. Exercise and gene expression: physiological regulation of the human genome through physical activity. J Physiol (Lond) 2002;543:399-411]. Physical rehabilitation is thus a major health issue for populations in industrialized countries.