Epidemic rates of osteoporosis in the western world have yielded intense efforts to develop management approaches to combat this potentially devastating disorder; recent research has unveiled innovative strategies which hold considerable promise for prevention of skeletal compromise and amelioration of suboptimal bone health. According to many algorithms and practice directives, the contemporary assessment and management of osteoporosis focuses heavily on determination of fracture risk and pharmaceutical intervention for those patients deemed to be at high risk. While routine recommendations for calcium and vitamin D have been incorporated into most regimens, disproportionately little attention has been given to recent research elucidating improved bone health and diminution in fracture rates experienced by patients receiving specific nutrients. In mainstream medical practice, clinical analysis and management of nutritional or dietary issues is sometimes perceived as unconventional, primitive or unsophisticated health care. Recent evidence-based research, however, supports intervention with adequate amounts of specific nutrients including vitamin D, strontium, vitamin K, and essential fatty acids in the prevention and primary management of osteoporosis.