Adiponectin levels are significantly lower in obese adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, essential hypertension, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease. However, the role of hypoadiponectinemia in nonobese healthy adults has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we examined the association between hypoadiponectinemia and cardiovascular risk factors and estimated plasma adiponectin values in nonobese, apparently healthy adults. A total of 204 male and 214 female healthy individuals aged 20 to 80 years, with a body mass index (BMI) of less than 25 kg/m2, were included in this study. We measured patients' plasma adiponectin levels, serum lipid profiles, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels, fasting glucose levels, and fasting insulin levels. Mean values of plasma adiponectin were 5.45 +/- 3.3 microg/mL in male and 8.16 +/- 4.6 microg/mL in female subjects. The hypoadiponectinemia group (< 4.0 microg/mL) had significantly higher levels (P < .01) of BMI, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and triglycerides, but lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). In males, plasma adiponectin levels were inversely correlated with BMI (r = -0.32, P < .01), HOMA-IR (r = -0.14, P < .05), triglyceride levels (r = -0.17, P < .05), and hs-CRP levels (r = -0.15, P < .05), and positively correlated with HDL-C (r = 0.24, P < .01). In females, plasma adiponectin levels were negatively correlated with BMI (r = -0.31, P < .01), fasting glucose (r = -0.18, P < .01), fasting insulin (r = -0.23, P < .01), HOMA-IR (r = -0.24, P < .01), and triglyceride (r = -0.18, P < .01) levels, and positively correlated with HDL-C (r = 0.37, P < .01). Sex, age, BMI, and HDL-C (P < .01 for each) were found to be independent factors associated with plasma adiponectin levels in multivariate analysis. Hypoadiponectinemia is significantly associated with cardiovascular risk factors such as insulin resistance and atherogenic lipid profiles in nonobese, apparently healthy subjects.