Monitoring dead space during recruitment and PEEP titration in an experimental model

Intensive Care Med. 2006 Nov;32(11):1863-71. doi: 10.1007/s00134-006-0371-7. Epub 2006 Sep 19.


Objective: To test the usefulness of dead space for determining open-lung PEEP, the lowest PEEP that prevents lung collapse after a lung recruitment maneuver.

Design: Prospective animal study.

Setting: Department of Clinical Physiology, University of Uppsala, Sweden.

Subjects: Eight lung-lavaged pigs.

Interventions: Animals were ventilated using constant flow mode with VT of 6ml/kg, respiratory rate of 30bpm, inspiratory-to-expiratory ratio of 1:2, and FiO(2) of 1. Baseline measurements were performed at 6cmH(2)O of PEEP. PEEP was increased in steps of 6cmH(2)O from 6 to 24cmH(2)O. Recruitment maneuver was achieved within 2min at pressure levels of 60/30cmH(2)O for Peak/PEEP. PEEP was decreased from 24 to 6cmH(2)O in steps of 2cmH(2)O and then to 0cmH(2)O. Each PEEP step was maintained for 10min.

Measurements and results: Alveolar dead space (VD(alv)), the ratio of alveolar dead space to alveolar tidal volume (VD(alv)/VT(alv)), and the arterial to end-tidal PCO(2) difference (Pa-ET: CO(2)) showed a good correlation with PaO(2), normally aerated areas, and non-aerated CT areas in all animals (minimum-maximum r(2)=0.83-0.99; p<0.01). Lung collapse (non-aerated tissue>5%) started at 12[Symbol: see text]cmH(2)O PEEP; hence, open-lung PEEP was established at 14cmH(2)O. The receiver operating characteristics curve demonstrated a high specificity and sensitivity of VD(alv) (0.89 and 0.90), VD(alv)/VT(alv) (0.82 and 1.00), and Pa-ET: CO(2) (0.93 and 0.95) for detecting lung collapse.

Conclusions: Monitoring of dead space was useful for detecting lung collapse and for establishing open-lung PEEP after a recruitment maneuver.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Positive-Pressure Respiration / methods*
  • Prospective Studies
  • Pulmonary Alveoli / physiopathology*
  • Pulmonary Atelectasis / prevention & control*
  • Pulmonary Gas Exchange
  • Pulmonary Ventilation
  • ROC Curve
  • Respiratory Dead Space*
  • Respiratory Distress Syndrome / therapy*
  • Respiratory Function Tests / methods*
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Swine
  • Tidal Volume