OBJECTIVE.: To test a new survey instrument and determine the acceptance and potential barriers of cervicovaginal self-sampling for high-risk human papillomavirus in rural Chinese women. MATERIALS AND METHODS.: Data from thirteen survey questions assessed acceptance of the self-sampling procedure. Pain, comprehension, and cultural beliefs were potential barriers evaluated by the survey. RESULTS.: A total of 1,560 women were surveyed. The average and mode number of steps of the self-sampling procedure recalled was 5 (out of 7). Ninety-one percent preferred performing the test at a clinic versus their home. The major barrier encountered was related to the educational level of the women. CONCLUSIONS.: The measure performed well in this population. The self-collection brush was well accepted by these women. Education is the largest hurdle to overcome in implementing a self-sampling screening program.