Canalicular secretion of bile salts mediated by the bile salt export pump Bsep constitutes the major driving force for the generation of bile flow. Bsep is a member of the B-family of the super family of ATP-binding cassette transporters and is classified as ABCB11. Bsep has a narrow substrate specificity, which is largely restricted to bile salts. Bsep is extensively regulated at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional level, which directly modulates canalicular bile formation. Pathophysiological alterations of Bsep by either inherited mutations or acquired processes such as inhibition by drugs or disease-related down regulation may lead to a wide spectrum of mild to severe forms of liver disease. Furthermore, many genetic variants of Bsep are known, some of which potentially render individuals susceptible to acquired forms of liver disease.