Effects of St. John's wort extract and single constituents on stress-induced hyperthermia in mice

Planta Med. 2006 Dec;72(15):1366-71. doi: 10.1055/s-2006-951710. Epub 2006 Oct 18.


Emotional or stress-induced hyperthermia (SIH) is the rise of body temperature following exposure to psychological stress and has been demonstrated across species. In the present experiments we used exposure to an open field (OF) as inescapable stressor. Exposure of male BL6/C57J mice to OF stress significantly increased body temperature (DeltaT = 1.8 +/- 0.13 degrees C, p < 0.05). SIH is calculated as the difference (DeltaT = T (2) - T (1)) between the basal temperature (T (1)) and the temperature after exposure to an OF for 10 min (T (2)). Using this experimental design, St. John's wort extract (SJW) as well as various single compounds of it were tested for their ability to affect DeltaT. Anxiolytic drugs (the benzodiazepine diazepam; 5 mg/kg, and the 5HT (1A) receptor agonist buspirone; 10 mg/kg) significantly reduced DeltaT, whereas antidepressants (imipramine and fluoxetine) had no effect on DeltaT. Oral administration of SJW extract significantly reduced DeltaT in doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg. Higher (750 and 1000 mg/kg) as well as a lower dose (125 mg/kg) did not affect DeltaT after stress, indicating a U-shaped dose-response curve. Hypericin (0.1 mg/kg, p. o.) administered 60 min prior to testing significantly decreased DeltaT (p < 0.05) whereas hyperforin (1 - 10 mg/kg, p. o.) had no effect in this test paradigm. The flavonoids hyperoside, isoquercitrin and quercitrin (all at 0.6 mg/kg, p. o.) and rutin (1 mg/kg, p. o.) only partially blocked OF-induced hyperthermia. If compared to all other flavonoids, the quercetin 3-O-glucuronide miquelianin (1.2 mg/kg, p. o.) was the most potent compound tested in this experimental design. From the biflavonoids in SJW, only amentoflavone decreased SIH-induced hyperthermia in a dosage of 0.1 mg/kg. In conclusion, using open field stress as a psychological stressor to induce hyperthermia in mice we were able to detect putative anxiolytic effects of SJW extract and single consituents.

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Animals
  • Anti-Anxiety Agents / administration & dosage
  • Anti-Anxiety Agents / pharmacology*
  • Anti-Anxiety Agents / therapeutic use
  • Body Temperature / drug effects
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Hypericum*
  • Hyperthermia, Induced
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Phytotherapy*
  • Plant Extracts / administration & dosage
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Plant Extracts / therapeutic use
  • Stress, Physiological / prevention & control*


  • Anti-Anxiety Agents
  • Plant Extracts