Background: Despite efforts to promote sun protection behaviors, melanoma incidence continues to increase. The prognosis of advanced melanoma remains extremely poor in spite of treatment advances, emphasizing the importance of exploring additional preventive measures.
Objective: We sought to summarize the results of published research on candidate chemoprevention agents for melanoma.
Methods: We conducted a narrative review of the literature.
Results: Investigation into a possible role in melanoma chemoprevention continues for multiple agents, including sunscreen, lipid-lowering medications, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, dietary nutrients, immunomodulators, and other drugs, including retinoids, difluoromethylornithine, and T4 endonuclease V.
Limitations: Systematic review of the literature was not performed.
Conclusion: Because no agent yet emerges as a clear choice for effective melanoma chemoprevention, sun avoidance and sun protection remain the mainstay of melanoma prevention for persons at high risk.