Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of contrast material-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) angiography by using digital subtraction angiography as the reference standard in patients with hypertension and renal artery fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD).
Materials and methods: Institutional review board approval was obtained, with waiver of informed consent. The results of renal contrast-enhanced MR angiography were retrospectively analyzed in 25 patients with hypertension (24 women, one man; mean age, 48 years +/- 19 [standard deviation]; age range, 18-72 years) who had FMD diagnosed on the basis of clinical and angiographic features. All examinations were performed at 1.5 T. Results were analyzed by two readers, and a third reader established a consensus in case of discrepancy. Sensitivity, specificity, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for FMD and for each possible type of FMD lesion ("string of pearls" appearance, stenosis, and aneurysm). A linear-weighted kappa statistic was calculated to determine agreement between digital subtraction angiography and contrast-enhanced MR angiography for the diagnosis of FMD and to determine inter- and intraobserver agreement regarding FMD diagnosis.
Results: Fifty main renal arteries were analyzed, 35 of which demonstrated abnormal arteriographic features of FMD (stenosis, 22 arteries; string of pearls, 21 arteries; and aneurysm, four arteries). The sensitivity and specificity of contrast-enhanced MR angiography for the diagnosis of FMD were 97% (95% CI: 83%, 100%) and 93% (95% CI: 66%, 100%), respectively. Sensitivity was 68% (95% CI: 83%, 100%), 95% (95% CI: 74%, 100%), and 100% (95% CI: 40%, 100%) for the diagnosis of stenosis, string of pearls, and aneurysm, respectively. Linear-weighted kappa statistics for inter- and intraobserver agreement regarding FMD diagnosis were 0.63 and 0.92, respectively.
Conclusion: In patients with renal FMD, contrast-enhanced MR angiography can reliably facilitate diagnosis by demonstrating characteristic lesions.
(c) RSNA, 2006.