Primary enamel knot cell death in Apaf-1 and caspase-9 deficient mice

Arch Oral Biol. 2007 Jan;52(1):15-9. doi: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2006.07.006. Epub 2006 Oct 20.


During molar development, apoptosis occurs in a well-characterised pattern suggesting several roles for cell death in odontogenesis. However, molecular mechanisms of dental apoptosis are only poorly understood. In this study, Apaf-1 and caspase-9 knockouts were used to uncover the engagement of these members of the apoptotic machinery during early tooth development, concentrating primarily on their function in the apoptotic elimination of primary enamel knot cells. Molar tooth germ morphology, proliferation and apoptosis were investigated on frontal histological sections of murine heads at embryonic days (ED) 15.5, the stage when the primary enamel knot is eliminated apoptotically. In molar tooth germs of both knockouts, no apoptosis was observed according to morphological (haematoxylin-eosin) as well as biochemical criteria (TUNEL). Morphology of the mutant tooth germs, however, was not changed. Additionally, knockout mice showed no changes in proliferation compared to wild type mice. According to our findings on knockout embryos, Apaf-1 and caspase-9 are involved in apoptosis during tooth development; however, they seem dispensable and not necessary for proper tooth shaping. Compensatory or other mechanisms of cell death may act to eliminate the primary enamel knot cells in the absence of Apaf-1 and caspase-9.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Apoptosis / physiology*
  • Apoptotic Protease-Activating Factor 1 / deficiency*
  • Caspase 9 / deficiency*
  • Cell Division / physiology
  • Dental Enamel / embryology
  • Dental Enamel / physiology*
  • Epithelial Cells / cytology
  • Mesoderm / physiology
  • Mice
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Molar / embryology
  • Molar / physiology
  • Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / analysis
  • Tooth Germ / anatomy & histology
  • Tooth Germ / embryology


  • Apaf1 protein, mouse
  • Apoptotic Protease-Activating Factor 1
  • Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen
  • Caspase 9