Objective: The purpose of this study was to translate the Diabetes Management Self-Efficacy Scale (DMSES) into Chinese and test the validity and reliability of the instrument within a Taiwanese population.
Research design and methods: A two-stage design was used for this study. Stage I consisted of a multi-stepped process of forward and backward translation, using focus groups and consensus meetings to translate the 20-item Australia/English version DMSES to Chinese and test content validity. Stage II established the psychometric properties of the Chinese version DMSES (C-DMSES) by examining the criterion, convergent and construct validity, internal consistency and stability testing. The sample for Stage II comprised 230 patients with type 2 diabetes aged 30 years or more from a diabetes outpatient clinic in Taiwan.
Results: Three items were modified to better reflect Chinese practice. The C-DMSES obtained a total average CVI score of .86. The convergent validity of the C-DMSES correlated well with the validated measure of the General Self-Efficacy Scale in measuring self-efficacy (r=.55; p<.01). Criterion-related validity showed that the C-DMSES was a significant predictor of the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities scores (Beta=.58; t=10.75, p<.01). Factor analysis supported the C-DMSES being composed of four subscales. Good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=.77 to .93) and test-retest reliability (Pearson correlation coefficient r=.86, p<.01) were found.
Conclusions: The C-DMSES is a brief and psychometrically sound measure for evaluation of self-efficacy towards management of diabetes by persons with type 2 diabetes in Chinese populations.