Protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks contain a large amount of useful information for the functional characterization of proteins and promote the understanding of the complex molecular relationships that determine the phenotype of a cell. Recently, large human interaction maps have been generated with high throughput technologies such as the yeast two-hybrid system. However, they are static and incomplete and do not provide immediate clues about the cellular processes that convert genetic information into complex phenotypes. Refined multiple-aspect PPI screening and confirmation strategies will have to be put in place to increase the validity of interaction maps. Integration of interaction data with other qualitative and quantitative information (e.g. protein expression or localization data), will be required to construct networks of protein function that reflect dynamic processes in the cell. In this way, combined PPI networks can become valuable resources for a systems-level understanding of cellular processes and complex phenotypes.