Pilot study of the porcine uterine horn as an in vivo appendicitis model for development of endoscopic transgastric appendectomy

Gastrointest Endosc. 2006 Nov;64(5):808-12. doi: 10.1016/j.gie.2006.04.038.


Background: Iatrogenic inflammation of the porcine uterine horn may serve as an in vivo appendicitis model for the development of endoscopic transgastric appendectomy.

Objective: Five female pigs.

Study design: Animal study.

Settings: General anesthesia.

Main outcome measurements: Anatomical appearance and technical feasibility.

Interventions: Three pigs were used to identify an injectable material that would inflame the uterine horn, and 2 pigs were used for a pilot appendectomy. Three types of materials were individually injected into the bilateral uterine horns, and the ideal material to inflame the uterine horn was injected into the right uterine horn for the last 2 pigs. After 24 hours, the injected uterine horns of the first 3 pigs were assessed and a pilot appendectomy was performed in the last 2 pigs.

Results: Ethanolamine oleate (EO) injected uterine horns demonstrated similarities to the inflamed human appendix. Simulations of the appendectomy were successfully performed by using the EO model.

Limitations: Suboptimal existing tools.

Conclusions: This preliminary study demonstrated the technical feasibility to create a model for acute appendicitis by using the porcine uterine horn and transgastric appendectomy.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Appendectomy* / methods
  • Appendicitis / surgery*
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Endometritis / chemically induced
  • Endometritis / surgery
  • Endoscopy, Digestive System*
  • Feasibility Studies
  • Female
  • Gastrostomy
  • Oleic Acids / adverse effects
  • Pilot Projects
  • Research Design
  • Sclerosing Solutions / adverse effects
  • Swine
  • Uterus / pathology
  • Uterus / surgery*


  • Oleic Acids
  • Sclerosing Solutions
  • ethanolamine oleate