In recent years, the most common pharmacological treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition. However, this single-target approach has limited effectiveness and there is evidence that a multitarget approach might be more effective. Huperzine A (HupA), a novel alkaloid isolated from a Chinese herb, has neuroprotective effects that go beyond the inhibition of AChE. Recent data have demonstrated that HupA can ameliorate the learning and memory deficiency in animal models and AD patients. Its potentially beneficial actions include modification of beta-amyloid peptide processing, reduction of oxidative stress, neuronal protection against apoptosis, and regulation of the expression and secretion of nerve growth factor (NGF) and NGF signaling.