Using in vitro drug sensitivity data coupled with Affymetrix microarray data, we developed gene expression signatures that predict sensitivity to individual chemotherapeutic drugs. Each signature was validated with response data from an independent set of cell line studies. We further show that many of these signatures can accurately predict clinical response in individuals treated with these drugs. Notably, signatures developed to predict response to individual agents, when combined, could also predict response to multidrug regimens. Finally, we integrated the chemotherapy response signatures with signatures of oncogenic pathway deregulation to identify new therapeutic strategies that make use of all available drugs. The development of gene expression profiles that can predict response to commonly used cytotoxic agents provides opportunities to better use these drugs, including using them in combination with existing targeted therapies.