Haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) is the primary diagnosis of 4.5% of children on chronic renal replacement therapy. Approximately 5% of all HUS cases have an "atypical" or recurrent course. Atypical HUS is an inadequate term that applies to a heterogeneous group of conditions. We describe this group as non-diarrhoeal (D-) ), non-EHEC (EHEC - ) HUS. Patients in the non-diarrhoeal, non-EHEC, relapsing group are much more likely to exhibit severe hypertension, histological findings of arterial as well as arteriolar disease, chronic and end-stage renal failure. In general, these patients have an alarmingly high risk of graft loss from disease recurrence or thrombosis ranging from 60-100%. Family history is crucial, and where family members have relapsing disease, transplantation is a very high risk procedure (recurrence 100%). Patients with (D-)HUS need very careful consideration before transplantation, including molecular investigation of complement regulators (and von Willebrandt protease (ADAMTS13) activity, although this goes beyond the scope of this review). Guidelines are accessible under http://www.espn.ucwm.ac.uk . On no account should live related donation take place unless the risks of graft loss are understood. International collaboration to identify safer ways of transplanting these challenging patients is urgently needed.