A prospective evaluation of "ketofol" (ketamine/propofol combination) for procedural sedation and analgesia in the emergency department

Ann Emerg Med. 2007 Jan;49(1):23-30. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2006.08.002. Epub 2006 Oct 23.


Study objective: We evaluate the effectiveness and consider the safety of intravenous ketamine/propofol combination ("ketofol") in the same syringe for procedural sedation and analgesia in the emergency department (ED).

Methods: A prospective case series of consecutive ketofol procedural sedation and analgesia events in the ED of a trauma-receiving community teaching hospital from July 2005 to February 2006 was studied. Patients of all ages, with any comorbid conditions, were included. Ketofol (1:1 mixture of ketamine 10 mg/mL and propofol 10 mg/mL) was administered intravenously at the discretion of the treating physician by using titrated aliquots. The presence or absence of adverse events was documented, as were procedural success, recovery time, and physician, nurse, and patient satisfaction. Physiologic data were recorded with established hospital procedural sedation and analgesia guidelines.

Results: One hundred fourteen procedural sedation and analgesia events using ketofol were performed for primarily orthopedic procedures. The median dose of medication administered was ketamine at 0.75 mg/kg and propofol at 0.75 mg/kg (range 0.2 to 2.05 mg/kg each of propofol and ketamine; interquartile range [IQR] 0.6 to 1.0 mg/kg). Procedures were successfully performed without adjunctive sedatives in 110 (96.5%) patients. Three patients (2.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.6% to 7.5%) had transient hypoxia; of these, 1 (0.9%; 95% CI 0.02% to 4.8%) required bag-valve-mask ventilation. Four patients (3.5%; 95% CI 1.0% to 8.7%) required repositioning for airway malalignment, 4 patients (3.5%; 95% CI 1.0% to 8.7%) required adjunctive medication for sedation, and 3 patients (2.6%; 95% CI 0.6% to 7.5%) had mild unpleasant emergence, of whom 1 (0.9%; 95% CI 0.02% to 4.8%) received midazolam. No patient had hypotension or vomiting or received endotracheal intubation. Median recovery time was 15 minutes (range 5 to 45 minutes; IQR 12 to 19 minutes). Median physician, nurse, and patient satisfaction scores were 10 on a 1-to-10 scale.

Conclusion: Ketofol procedural sedation and analgesia is effective and appears to be safe for painful procedures in the ED. Few adverse events occurred and were either self-limited or responded to minimal interventions. Recoveries were rapid, and staff and patients were highly satisfied.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Analgesia*
  • Conscious Sedation*
  • Drug Combinations
  • Emergency Service, Hospital
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypnotics and Sedatives*
  • Ketamine* / administration & dosage
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Propofol* / administration & dosage
  • Prospective Studies


  • Drug Combinations
  • Hypnotics and Sedatives
  • Ketamine
  • Propofol