Neonatal surgical aortic commissurotomy: predictors of outcome and long-term results

Ann Thorac Surg. 2006 Nov;82(5):1585-92. doi: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2006.05.049.


Background: The objective of this study was to review our institutional experience concerning neonatal aortic commissurotomy and to identify predictors of outcome.

Methods: From January 1, 1990, to January 1, 2005, 65 neonates were referred for critical aortic stenosis. Among these 36 consecutive patients underwent surgical valvotomy by the same surgeon and 16 patients had balloon valvotomy. We examined clinical records to establish determinants of outcome and illustrate long-term results.

Results: In the surgical group 6 patients had nonstenotic parachute mitral valve, 6 had aortic coarctation, 13 had endocardial fibroelastosis; and 15 had depressed fractional shortening. In the balloon valvotomy group most infants had associated mitral stenosis (n = 7), small aortic annulus (n = 5), multiple anomalies (n = 2), endocardial fibroelastosis (n = 9), and depressed fractional shortening (n = 13). In the surgical group global mortality was 19%; 47% in infants with depressed fractional shortening and 0% in infants with normal fractional shortening. Mortality in the balloon valvotomy group was 56%. Low fractional shortening, low mean aortic gradient, endocardial fibroelastosis, and small aortic annulus were associated with fatal outcome. In the surgical group 6 patients needed Ross operation at a median interval of 4 years from commissurotomy. In the balloon valvotomy group 3 patients needed early mitral replacement and 5 aortic valve surgery. At a median follow-up of 6 years, all children are in New York Heart Association class I, all have a normal ventricular function, 2 have aortic restenosis, and 5 have at least moderate aortic incompetence.

Conclusions: In a selected population of neonates with isolated aortic stenosis, surgical valvotomy offers an excellent long-term outcome to patients with a normokinetic left ventricle, while patients with a hypokinetic left ventricle have a poor outcome. Balloon valvotomy offers poor results when performed in patients with complex anomalies.

MeSH terms

  • Aortic Valve Stenosis / complications
  • Aortic Valve Stenosis / surgery*
  • Cardiac Surgical Procedures / methods*
  • Catheterization
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Survival Analysis
  • Time Factors
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Ventricular Dysfunction, Left / complications*