Development of a multiple internal control for clinical diagnostic real-time amplification assays

FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2006 Nov;48(2):183-91. doi: 10.1111/j.1574-695X.2006.00125.x.


A major pitfall in most published genomic amplification methods for the detection and identification of human pathogens is that they do not include an internal amplification control in order to achieve an acceptable level of confidence for the absence of false-negative results. By applying composite primer technology, a single multiple internal amplification control DNA molecule was constructed to detect and quantify the hepatitis B virus, human polyomavirus, Epstein-Barr virus, Toxoplasma gondii and cytomegalovirus using real-time PCR. The multiple internal amplification control contains all forward and reverse primer binding regions targeted in the five distinct duplex PCRs, but with a unique probe hybridization site. Multiple internal amplification control detection sensitivity, assessed by Probit analysis, was 58 copies per PCR, associated with an extremely wide dynamic range (8 log(10) units). Moreover, in testing 614 patient samples, PCR inhibition occurred at a frequency of 0-8.8%. Similar multiple internal amplification controls for quantitative PCR-based assays could be designed to accommodate any infectious profiles in a particular institution as they are easy to make and inexpensive.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Computer Systems*
  • Cytomegalovirus / genetics
  • Cytomegalovirus Infections / virology
  • DNA Primers*
  • DNA, Viral / analysis*
  • DNA, Viral / genetics
  • Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / virology
  • False Negative Reactions
  • Hepatitis B / virology
  • Hepatitis B virus / genetics
  • Herpesvirus 4, Human / genetics
  • Humans
  • JC Virus / genetics
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods*
  • Polyomavirus Infections / virology
  • Toxoplasma / genetics
  • Toxoplasmosis / parasitology


  • DNA Primers
  • DNA, Viral