We report here the use of human inflammation arrays to study the inflammatory gene expression profile of TNF-alpha- treated human SGBS adipocytes. Human preadipocytes (SGBS) were induced to differentiate in primary culture, and adipocyte differentiation was confirmed, using Oil Red O staining. We treated the differentiated adipocytes with TNF-alpha, and RNA from differentiated adipocytes with or without TNF-alpha treatment was hybridized to MWG human inflammation arrays to compare expression profiles. Eleven genes were up- or down-regulated in TNF-alpha-treated adipocytes. As revealed by array analysis, among 6 up-regulated genes, only eotaxin-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 isoform a precursor (VCAM1) were confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Similarly, among 5 down-regulated genes, only IL-1 family member 5 (IL1F5), a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin motifs-1 preproprotein (ADAMTS1), fibronectin 1 isoform 1 preprotein (FN1), and matrix metalloproteinase 15 preprotein (MMP15) were confirmed by real-time PCR. There was a substantial increase (50-fold) in eotaxin-1 in response to TNF-alpha. Taken together, we have identified several inflammatory molecules expressed in SGBS adipocytes and discovered molecular factors explaining the relationship between obesity and atherosclerosis, focusing on inflammatory cytokines expressed in the TNF-alpha-treated SGBS cells. Further investigation into the role of these up- or down-regulated cytokine genes during the pathological processes leading to the development of atherosclerosis is warranted.