[Family environment risk factors of depression in adolescence]

Psychiatr Pol. 2006 Jul-Aug;40(4):719-30.
[Article in Polish]


General psychosocial theories of developmental psychopathology assert that family environment plays a significant role in forming both adaptive and maladaptive functioning of children. Also virtually all theories of depression assert that faulty parent-child relationships play a major role in the aetiology of this disorder. According these theoretical formulations familial risk factors have been the focus of most research on depression in adolescence. Several studies have shown that insecure attachment and parenting characterized by coldness, rejection, harsh discipline and unsupportive behaviour is positively related to adolescent depressive symptoms. Some research indicates that authoritative parenting, conceptualized as a composite of warmth, accept-involvement, firm control, and democratic discipline, is associated with the least depressive symptoms among adolescents. Pathogenetic factors within the family environment, such as parental depression, changes of family structure, violence or neglect, can also contribute to depression in adolescence. A causal relationship between anomalous parenting and depression is probably the interplay among genetic, cognitive, emotional, interpersonal and family environmental factors.

Publication types

  • English Abstract
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adolescent Behavior / psychology*
  • Adult
  • Depression / psychology*
  • Domestic Violence / psychology
  • Family / psychology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Object Attachment*
  • Parent-Child Relations*
  • Parents / psychology*
  • Personality Development
  • Risk Factors
  • Social Environment